Pseudoarchaeology Research Archive (PARA)
Cite as: Ross, Sara. 2007. The Ica Stones and Dr. Javier Cabrera. PARA Web Bibliography B-03. http://pseudoarchaeology.org/b03-ross.html
May 21, 2007
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Introduction to the
The Ica Stones are currently displayed in the
The main proponent associated with the Ica
Stones is the late Dr. Javier Cabrera (deceased 2001) who is credited with
popularizing the stones as well as displaying and caring for them in the museum
that was contained within his house in
As the Ica Stones gained international popularity, the Peruvian government was forced to crack down on the law governing huaqueros (grave robbers) and those who sell antiquities on the black market. As a result the farmer was arrested, faced imprisonment but avoided jail by eventually admitting to being the one to create the numerous Ica Stones.
Cabrera was not deterred by this confession and dedicated the rest of his life to the promotion and maintenance of the stones. A trained physician and founder of the San Luis Gonzaga Ica National University, Cabrera was highly regarded in his mainstream professional career but generally ridiculed for his involvement and extensive theorizing of the Ica Stones. The international archaeological community has discounted these stones as a hoax but many other influential proponents hail from the worlds of extraterrestrial enthusiasts, mythic specialists, and young earth creationists. Two of the most prolific of the young earth creationists who focus on the human and dinosaur co-existence factor are Don Patton and Dennis Swift.
Today, people still believe in the authenticity of the stones despite the fact that this authenticity has been disproven. Problematically, the stones cannot be dated as no organic matter is found on them, nor can the strata where they were found be dated - the location of the cave has conveniently been kept a secret.
Proponents and Advocates
Case of the
-This site summarizes the Ica Stones and, while it mentions that there is the possibility they are a hoax, it is emphasized that the authenticity of the stones has never been proved or disproved.
in Literature, Art & History – Revisiting the Stones of
-This site has creationist slant to its support of the Ica Stones’ representation of dinosaurs and humans co-existing. This is important so that they can establish that the Earth is younger than scientists have determined it to be. Proof brought in to support the authenticity of the Ica Stones includes geologist Eric Wolf’s 1967 identification of the stones as authentic due to the fine patina of natural oxidation that is also found over the etchings. Also, the stone supplying farmer’s confession to carving the stones himself is refuted by emphasizing his desire to avoid going to jail for selling authentic artifacts. The site mentions that while the stones may not be authentic, it generally does not seem feasible for them all to be fakes.
Guide: The Ultimate Guide to the Ultimate End! – The
-This site exclaims that there is no debate about the existence of the Ica Stones as they exist in the thousands. There is a basic summary of the advanced technology and dinosaurs depicted on the stones but the site also mentions that there is an ongoing debate about the origin and authenticity of the Ica Stones.
-This site accuses man of labeling everything that cannot be explained as a hoax. There is a general explanation of the stones and the author believes that deciphering the message of the stones could be very helpful to humankind.
Illuminated Timeline of OBIE. Retrieved on March 12, 2007 from
-This all encompassing site includes theories from nearly every standpoint into one all-inclusive timeline. Cabrera’s Ica Stones are mentioned for 60,000,000 BC and 13,000,000 BC although the difference between their occurrence in each period is not clarified.
Jurassic Art. Retrieved on March 13, 2007 from
promotes a video investigating the Ica Stones and Acambaro figurines of
Labyrinthina. Retrieved on March 13, 2001 from
-Apparently Erich Von Daniken also writes on the Ica Stones as a complement to his Nazca Lines extraterrestrial contact theories.
-You can buy your very own Ica Stone cast here. The site credits Dr. Dennis Swift with the original research of the Ica Stones since 1979 and mentions that he is an associate of Dr. Don Patton (see his creationist website below). The two of them, with the help of “laboratory tests” have apparently been able to confirm the stones’ authenticity.
-A creationist proponent of the dinosaur depictions on the Ica Stones who hopes that exposure of the stones will expose the “entire metaphysical religion of macro-evolutionism for the enemy and oppressor of truth in science that it is”.
-A glowing review of Swift’s book on the Ica Stones, which is basically a reiteration of Cabrera’s theories but with greater emphasis on the co-existence of dinosaur and man (with a creationist twist) as opposed to the extraterrestrial connection. There are also numerous excerpts outlining his “conversion” from an evolutionist who thought the Ica Stones were a hoax to a believer. He apparently saw down a hole broken into a Nazca tomb and saw a single Ica Stone with a dinosaur carved on it, which completely changed his mind. (Swift is the only proponent to claim that he actually found an Ica Stone in a context besides the mysterious cave that no one has ever seen.)
-A summary of the function of the Ica Stones Association and Museum which houses the Ica Stones Library. The library itself is the collection of carved Ica Stones, or “gliptoliths”. The site also mentions that ethnohistoric sources, such as early Spanish chronicles, mention the discovery of similar stones in pre-conquest tombs. Unfortunately no further information about these sources is provided.
of the Ica Stones and especially of their creation by extraterrestrials. The site mentions that laboratories in
-A proponent site for Cabrera and the Ica Stones which posits that they cannot be a hoax because the large number of stones that Cabrera has in his possession. There is also mention of a tunnel were at least 100,000 more stones are found and that fossils from the Cretaceous period can also be found easily on the surface in this region. Depictions of men killing dinosaurs on the stones are said to show axes being swung at what scientists now know as the two vital spots of a dinosaur. This is taken to be proof that modern Peruvians could not have carved this as there are apparently no “dinosaur biology” classes in Peruvian Colleges. (Although chopping at a dinosaur’s neck as a good method of killing it would seem to be a pretty obvious guess). Of course there is also mention of the andesite composition of the stones which the site says modern Peruvians would not be able to etch with their steal tools.
Ed. 1998. The Message of the Engraved Stones of
-This site is not a direct proponent of the Ica Stones and Cabrera but it focuses on the extraterrestrial component and hopes to promote the issue so more scientific research will be done. The author does mention that the stones could provide the necessary evidence to demonstrate the existence of extraterrestrial visitors. Also, the site leans towards the idea that the farmer, who confessed to creating the stones, could not actually have done so. The author mentions that it is unlikely for an individual to spend thirty years perpetuating a hoax that has been so negatively received and has resulted in much ridicule for the otherwise highly regarded doctor
Eric. 2006. Are the
-The author looks at evidence for and against the authenticity of the Ica Stones. He refers specifically to Stephen Meyer’s critique of the stones (see under critics). However, Bermingham is clearly a creationist and believes that there is much more evidence in favour of the authenticity of the stones. Apparently it is relatively easy to identify the forged stones. Also, Bermingham states that the depiction of dinosaurs is not far-fetched as there is alleged evidence of dinosaurs that are still alive today as well as evidence for human and dinosaur co-existence from around the world.
Javier. 1989. The Message of the Engraved Stones of
-This article promotes Cabrera’s book The Message of the Engraved Stones of Ica. Cabrera acknowledges that scientific authorities have accused him of perpetrating what they see as a hoax but emphasizes that his objective is simply for these scientists to study the stones. The co-existence of man and dinosaur during the Mesozoic period is emphasized. To support this belief Cabrera cites his discovery of a sedimentary rock layer from the Mesozoic containing the fossilized remains of dinosaurs and humans. (Unfortunately, he does not give any details concerning his method for accurately dating this layer, nor provenience of the fossils found, and also neglects to take into account any factors that may have affected the integrity of the geological layers and skewed his findings. Ultimately, no conclusive evidence is provided for the coexistence of man and dinosaur except for the questionable fossils found and the alleged Ica Stone depictions of man and dinosaur co-existing.)
Dankenbring, William F. Dinosaurs and Man? Retrieved on March 12, 2007 from
is for the Hope of Israel Ministries or the
-This site basically outlines Cabrera’s Ica Stones through a citation from a book called ‘Existio Otra Humanidad’ by J.J. Benitez.
Kathy. 2001. The Nazca Spaceport and the
-A proponent of Dr. Cabrera and his “gliptoliths”, this site explains some more of Cabrera’s theories. The author explains that the discovery of the stones created quite an international media frenzy which put pressure on the Peruvian government to arrest the farmer who had sold the stones to Cabrera under the country’s antiquity law. She cites the farmer’s desire to avoid being jailed as a huaquero as the reason for his confession to carving the stones himself which resulted in the stones’ classification as a hoax. Doore then explains that it would be impossible for the farmer to have carved the stones as he was illiterate and uneducated and would not have had enough scientific knowledge to create the depictions. She also notes the four stones which apparently point to possible unknown continents as well as several others which Cabrera has interpreted as depicting certain Nazca geoglyphs as “spaceports” that were able to harness electromagnetic energy for “Gliptolithic” man to travel to their home planet. The author explains how Cabrera’s interpretation of the Ica Stones has lead to his understanding that the Nazca Line were magnetically stamped into the pampa to protect the world from disaster.
Doore, Kathy. 2001. Cabrera’s Chamber: Part II – The Nazca Spaceport and the Ica Stones of Peru. Retrieved on March 13, 2007 from
-This site describes the author’s visit with Cabrera and her awe-struck impressions of the stones which she sees as an ancient “time capsule” carrying important knowledge for mankind. The enthusiastic author is convinced that Cabrera has been entrusted with these stones as their custodian and “liberator”.
Kathy. 2002. Legendary
-This is Cabrera’s obituary along with a summary promoting his Ica Stone research. The author quotes NASA scientist Josef F. Blumrich as being impressed by the stones and happy that he had found “so much direct evidence for what [he had] begun to feel and understand before”. The context of this statement is not give but he apparently states that he has no doubt the stones are authentic.
Eden, Dan. Jurassic Art. Retrieved on March 13, 2007 from
-This site gives an in depth explanation the Jurassic Art video on the Ica Stones. Although the author mentions that the archaeologist in the video finds a man who replicates the Ica Stones for a living, it is also mentioned that the quality is not the same and the replicas do not have the same varnish in the grooves as Cabrera’s stones.
Dave. The Ancient
-This website, dedicated to Cabrera, discusses the author’s trip to see the stones. Numerous excerpts of Cabrera’s book are listed and summarize key points of Cabrera’s work. These include the testimony of geologist Eric Wolf who supports the authenticity of the stones, a refutation of the confession of two farmers for orchestrating the hoax, a description of Cabrera’s method for inferring meaning from the carvings, as well as many other excerpts. The author of the website agrees with most of Cabrera’s theories and states that while most of the stones are authentic, some are most likely fakes (notably the smaller ones) but that these should not condemn all of the stones. Part of the reason for his conviction of the authenticity is that the stones were found in 1961 and, while they include depictions of heart transplants, the first heart transplant did not occur until 1967. (However, what the depictions are said to portray are interpretations. In addition, if a heart transplant had not yet occurred when the stones were found, Cabrera at least must have had enough knowledge of the procedure to interpret the depiction as a heart transplant!)
Jochmans, Joseph Robert. 1995. Top Ten Out-Of-Place Artifacts. Retrieved on March 14, 2007 from
-This article summarizes numerous mysterious artifacts and includes the Ica Stones at number nine on its list of top ten. The author summarizes the stones but highlights the depictions of brain transplants which is said to be evident that these apparent prehistoric surgeons had even more advanced knowledge than we do today.
-This is a creationist site that is against evolution. Jones states that while some of the Ica Stones may be fake; this is not the case for all of them. He reasons that the only reason they are thought to be fake is a result of the dinosaurs they depict which disproves evolution. Apparently the sheer volume of the stones also indicates that they cannot be fakes. He argues with the statement that the only real versions are kept in the basement of South American Museums to avoid association with the Ica Stones is not likely as they would want to show the real and fake side by side to showcase the difference. In addition he states that the stones must be authentic because no one would copy fake artifacts. (Regardless of whether the stones are fake or not, tourists would still buy these stones, making it feasible for copies to be made of fakes.)
Don. Dinosaur Art From Ancient Tombs
-The first article and introduction to this page are about Cabrera and the Ica Stones. Don Patton is an important young earth creationist proponent of this theory. He is a creation scientist and a geologist. Patton believes the stones to be real but sees Cabrera as a strange man with bizarre interpretations and an obsession with the fact that the scientific community will not acknowledge the authenticity of his stones. Patton also mentions the pornographic nature of the depictions showing the idolatry of what he believes to have been the Nazca Culture. Some ethnohistoric sources who recorded the presence of carved stones are mentioned. This is a creationist website as well.
Robert and Kathy Doore. 2000. The Healing Stones of
Kathy Doore’s friend shares his personal experiences with the Ica Stones where
he bonds specifically with two of the stones.
This happens when he receives a transmission from them on the screen of
his camcorder while recording the stones, which results in an “out of body”
experience. Then there is the dream
that same night where the stones call out to him. Cabrera ends up giving him these two stones. The author believes one stone is male while
the other is female. He explains that
the stones enjoy going to spiritual and hedonistic gatherings and they also
apparently have healing abilities. (It
is illegal to remove artifacts from
-This UFO enthusiast believes in the authenticity of the Ica Stones and that they are further proof of possible contact with an Extraterrestrial race.
Dennis. Dinosaurs and Humans –
http://www.dinosandhumans.org (see Ica Stones under Research and Findings)
-Swift is one of the major proponents of the authenticity of the Ica Stones, he is a pastor with a degree in Theology. This site presents evidence that supports the “Biblical account of humans and dinosaurs co-existing and interacting”. There is a section on the Ica Stones where he states that microscopic analysis on the Ica Stones has provided conclusive evidence that they are not modern forgeries. (This contradicts this statement in his conversation with Myers, see Critics section.)
Wagner, Stephen. 1998. Pieces Out of Time. Retrieved on March 13, 2007 from
-This article explains the author’s fascination with “ancient anomalies” and lists the ones he finds most interesting, including the Ica Stones. He is a proponent.
Critics and Skeptical Sources
-General site covering the topic, pretty neutral but more of a slant towards attributing the stones to a hoax.
-General site introducing Cabrera and the Ica Stones but presents evidence that is skeptical of their authenticity and the theories behind them.
summary of the Ica Stones. Emphasizes
that the stones have no archaeological provenance at all as the cave they were
supposedly found in has never been seen and is a secret. Apparently clay figurines have also been
produced along with the stones. The
infamous Erich Von Daniken sent one of these figurines to be dated and it was
determined due to water content that the figurine was modern. The author helpfully points out the errors
in the dinosaur depictions; such as five fingers or toes on each limb, the
portrayal of the wrong species of dinosaur like the Stegosaurus which was not
Carroll, Robert. 2002.
skeptical site that posits that at least not all of the stones are authentic,
except for perhaps the ones that were taken back to
Carroll, Robert. 2004. Pranks, Frauds, and Hoaxes from Around the World. Retrieved on March 13, 2007 from
-The article skeptically presents examples of hoaxes from around the world and includes Cabrera’s Ica Stones. The author states that the only way these stones are believable is if one already has a belief in extraterrestrial contact, a belief that the world is only a few thousand years old, or have a good understanding of “Flintstone science”.
Coppens, Filip. 2001. Jurassic Library. Retrieved on March 13, 2007 from
-This article gives a summary of Cabrera and the Ica Stones and presents a skeptical view where at least the majority of the stones are considered to be fake. Amongst the stones there is quite a variation in workmanship which would appear to indicate that some are replicas while others may have been created by another sort of anthropological explanation besides extraterrestrials. The author also notes the Ica Stone and Cabrera’s connection to Erich Von Daniken’s theories. Interestingly, Von Daniken who was a close friend of Cabrera’s, has repeatedly stated that the stones are not authentic does not believe in the authenticity of the Ica Stones. The author mentions that the images might have been created a long time ago, but not while the dinosaurs roamed the Earth. He says the stone’s creator might have been copying a fossil they had found which are quite common in the area. The author also suggests that perhaps Cabrera has managed to fool himself or is so committed to his theories that he will use imitations to support them. Cabrera has contradicted himself by admitting that many of the stones are inauthentic and that they were created for tourists while he also adamantly insists that a core of the Ica Stones are authentic.
Isaak, Mark. 2004. Index to Creationist Claims: Claim CH710.1. Retrieved on March 13, 2007 from
-Specifically critical of the human interaction with dinosaurs component. He notes the stones were most likely created by locals, that they cannot be dated as their source has never been revealed, and he emphasizes the lack of any other evidence for the existence of “Gliptolithic Man” including the nearby Nazca Lines which do not depict dinosaurs or advanced technology
Mathews, David. 2000. Domesticated Dinosaurs? Retrieved on March 13, 2007 from
-This skeptical site takes issue with some Christians who are defending Young Earth Creationism with the Ica Stones as evidence that dinosaurs existed much more recently. Mathews explains that these Christian proponents of the Ica Stones accuse scientists of a conspiracy hiding evidence that refutes evolution. He is especially critical of Don Patton’s use of the Ica Stones to support his creationist beliefs (see Advocates section).
Stephen C. 2005. Institute for Biblical and Scientific
Studies – Dr. Dennis Swift –
-The author applauds some fundamentalists who have taken a stand and admit the Ica Stones are not authentic. The author has spoken with Dr. Swift who is one of the main experts on the Ica Stones and admits that many of them are fake. Myers agrees that while some Ica Stones are may be real they are not the ones that depict dinosaurs, or men and dinosaurs, or telescopes, or other planets. The author states that it is not enough for a pastor with a degree in theology (Dr. Swift) to deem the stones authentic but that a qualified expert in the field should be consulted. Numerous other sources who have debunked the authenticity of the Ica Stones are cited.
Massimo. 2002. Notes on a Strange
-This is a
very funny site discounting Cabrera and his Ica Stones. Many interesting questions are posed
including why such an advanced civilization like “Gliptolithic Man” would
preserve the memory of their presence on earth through crude drawings on
stones. The confession of the farmers
who created the stones is also brought up in addition to a recent examination
of the stones by the Spanish “Hipergea” research group in
Stephen. 2004. The Mysterious
-This article systematically considers both points of view in analyzing whether the Ica Stones are authentic or a hoax but eventually concludes they are a hoax but in need of more scientific research to put the matter to rest.