The Phrontistery

Paleolithic Notation Bibliography

The following bibliography lists over 400 academic articles, books, dissertations, and related publications (excluding book reviews and non-academic material) that discuss or evaluate the theory that some Paleolithic (primarily European Upper Paleolithic) artifacts contain non-representational graphic marks that served as tallies, calendars, astronomical notations, numerals, or other mnemonic devices. While controversial, this theory (most closely associated with the work of the late Alexander Marshack) has achieved considerable acceptance among archaeologists, although the exact function of these artifacts has yet to be ascertained. The publications in this bibliography date from 1865 to 2008, and new material is regularly being published, expanding the literature on the subject. Please contact me if you know of additional resources that should be included.

This bibliography is a collaborative piece of research conducted in the context of a senior undergraduate course at McGill University, Archaeological Methods, under my instructorship (Methods). As no prior bibliography on this subject exists, my hope is that our research may allow others to pursue more thorough research on this fascinating subject. In addition to myself (Stephen Chrisomalis), the following student-scholars contributed to the bibliography: Lisa Zimanyi, Yujing Wang, Alison Vadnais, Katherine Tong, Anna Titcomb, Julien Shoenfeld, Valeria Rytova, Liz Penttila, Sol Klein, Emma Johnson, Karla Heath, Dario Guiducci, David Groves, Claudine Gravel Miguel, Emma Chait, and Lars Anderson.

  1. Abadía, O.M. & M.R.G. Morales. 2004. Towards a genealogy of the concept of 'Paleolithic mobiliary art'. Journal of Anthropological Research 60(3): 321-39.
  2. Abramova, Zoja A. 1967. Paleolithic art in the USSR. Arctic Anthropology 4(2): 1-179.
  3. Absolon, Karl. 1957. Dokumente und Beweise der Fähigkeiten des fossilen Menschen zu zählen im mährischen Paläolithikum. Artibus Asiae 20(2/3): 123-150.
  4. Anati, E. 1968. Anatolia's earliest art. Archaeology 21(1): 22-35.
  5. Aveni, Anthony. 2002. Empires of time: calendars, clocks, and cultures. Revised edition. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Press.
  6. Bahn, Paul G. 1989. Getting into the groove. Nature 339: 429-30.
  7. Bahn, Paul G. 1996. New developments in Pleistocene art. Evolutionary Anthropology 4: 204-215.
  8. Bahn, Paul G. and Jean Vertut. 1988. Images of the Ice Age. London: Windward.
  9. Baity, Elizabeth Chesley. 1973. Archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy so far. Current Anthropology 14(4): 389-449.
  10. Balout, L. et al. 1970. Débat sur les problèmes généraux. Valcamonica Symposium: Actes du Symposium international d'art préhistorique, edited by E. Anati: 539-47. Edizioni del Centro.
  11. Barandiaran, Ignacio. 1971. Hueso con grabados paleolíticos, en Torre (Oyarzun, Guipúzcoa). Munibe 23(1): 37-69.
  12. Barton, C. Michael and Clark, G. A. and Cohen, Allison E. 1994. Art as Information: Explaining Upper Palaeolithic Art in Western Europe. World Archaeology 26(2): 185-207.
  13. Bar-Yosef, Ofer and Anna Belfer-Cohen. 1999. Encoding information: Unique Natufian objects from Hayonim Cave, Western Galilee, Israel. Antiquity 73 (280): 402-410.
  14. Bar-Yosef, Ofer. 2002. The Upper Paleolithic Revolution. Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 363-393.
  15. Bataille, Georges. 1955. Lascaux or the birth of art. New York: Skira.
  16. Baudouin, Marcel. 1916. La préhistoire des étoiles au Paléolithique: Les Pleiades a l'époque aurignacienne et le culte stello-solaire typique au solutréen', Bulletin et Memoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, ser. 6, 7: 274-317.
  17. Baudouin, Marcel. 1916. Les Pleiades au Neolithique. Bulletin et Memoriores de la Societe D'anthropologie de Paris 7 :25-103
  18. Baudouin, Marcel. 1926. La préhistoire par les étoiles: un chronomètre préhistorique. Paris: Maloine.
  19. Bednarik, Robert G. 1984. Die Bedeutung der palaolithischen Fingerlinientradition. Anthropologie 22:73-79.
  20. Bednarik, Robert G. 1988. Comment on D. Mania and U. Mania, 'Deliberate engravings on bone artefacts of Homo erectus'. Rock Art Research 5: 96-100.
  21. Bednarik, Robert G. 1990. An Acheulian haematite pebble with striations. Rock Art Research 7: 75.
  22. Bednarik, Robert G. 1990-91. Epistemology in palaeoart studies. Origini 15: 57-78.
  23. Bednarik, Robert G. 1992. A Basis for Advanced Studies of Early Art. Anthropologie 96 (2-3):369-374.
  24. Bednarik, Robert G. 1992. Natural line markings on Palaeolithic objects, Anthropologie 30(3): 233-240.
  25. Bednarik, Robert G. 1992. Palaeoart and archaeological myths. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2(1): 27-43.
  26. Bednarik, Robert G. 1993. European Paleolithic art: typical or exceptional? Oxford Journal of Archaeology 12(1): 1-8.
  27. Bednarik, Robert G. 1994. A Taphonomy of Palaeoart. Antiquity 68(258): 68-75.
  28. Bednarik, Robert G. 1994. Art Origins. Anthropos 89(1-3): 169-80.
  29. Bednarik, Robert G. 1994. On the scientific study of palaeoart. Semiotica 100(2-4): 141-168.
  30. Bednarik, Robert G. 1994. The discrimination of rock markings. Rock Art Research 11: 23-44.
  31. Bednarik, Robert G. 1995. Concept-Mediated Marking in the Lower Palaeolithic. Current Anthropology 36(4): 605-634.
  32. Bednarik, Robert G. 1997. The global evidence of early human symboling behaviour. Human Evolution 12: 147-168.
  33. Berghaus, Gunter. 2004. New perspectives on prehistoric art. Westport: Praeger.
  34. Bicho, Nuno, Antonio F. Carvalho, Cesar González-Sainz, Jose Luis Sanchidrián, Valentín Villaverde and Lawrence G. Straus. 2007. The Upper Paleolithic Rock Art of Iberia. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 14(1): 81-151.
  35. Blumenschine, R.J. et al. 1996. Blind tests on inter-analyst correspondence and accuracy in the identification of cut marks, percussion marks, and carnivore tooth marks on bone surfaces. Journal of Archaeological Science 23: 493-507
  36. Boboeuf M. 1996. Le galet gravé du locus 1 de Roquemissou (Aveyron) dans son contexte épipaléolithique, L'Anthropologie 100 (1): 236-243
  37. Bogoshi, Jonas, Kevin Naidoo and John Webb. 1987. The oldest mathematical artifact. The Mathematical Gazette 71: 294.
  38. Bordes, François. 1969. Os percé moustérien et os gravé acheuléen du Pech de l'Azé II. Quaternaria 11: 1-5.
  39. Bordes, François. 1972. A tale of two caves. New York: Harper & Row.
  40. Boroneant, Vasile and Boris A. Frolov. 1979. On upper paleolithic symbol systems. Current anthropology 20(3): 604-8.
  41. Bosinski, Gerhard, Francesco d'Errico, and Petra Schiller. 2001. Die gravierten Frauendarstellungen von Gönnersdorf. Stuttgart: Steiner.
  42. Bouchud, J. 1968. Les Paléolithiques connaissent-ils le cycle lunaire? L'Anthropologie 72(1-2): 193-195.
  43. Bouissac, P. 1993. Beyond Style: Steps toward a Semiotic Hypothesis. In Rock Art Studies: The Post Stylistic Era or Where do we go from here? ed. M. Lorblanchet and P. Bahn. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  44. Bourdier, Frank. 1960. Observations et hypotheses sur la signification de l'Art Paleolithique. Bulletin de la Societe Prehistorique francais LVII : 133-135.
  45. Bower, Bruce. 1990. Ancient Symbols Surface on Israeli Pebble. Science News 137(23): 357.
  46. Breuil, Henri and H. Obermaier. 1935. The cave of Altamira at Santillana del Mar. Madrid: Junta de las Cuevas de Altamira.
  47. Breuil, Henri. 1909. Le bison et le taureau celeste chaldeen. Revue Archeologique I:250-254.
  48. Breuil, Henri. 1913. Les subdivisions du paléolithique et leur signification. Compte Rendu du Congrès International d'Anthropologie et Archéologie Préhistorique 14: 165-238.
  49. Breuil, Henri. 1952. Four hundred centuries of cave art, trans. M.E. Boyle. Dordogne: Montignac.
  50. Bricker, Harvey M. 1976. Upper Palaeolithic archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology 5: 133-148.
  51. Bromage, T.G. 1984. Interpretation of Scanning Electron Microscopic Images of Abraded Forming Bone Surfaces. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 64: 161-178.
  52. Brooks, A. S., and C. C. Smith. 1987. Ishango revisited: New age determinations and cultural interpretations. African Archaeological Review 5:65-78.
  53. Brown, Peter Lancaster. 1976. Megaliths, myths, and men: an introduction to astro-archaeology. New York: Taplinger.
  54. Brumm, A. and Moore, M.W. 2005. Symbolic revolutions and the Australian archaeological record. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15 (2):157-175.
  55. Brumm, Adam, Nicole Boivin, and Richard Fullagar. 2006. Signs of life: Engraved stone artef acts from Neolithic South India. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 16 (2): 165-190.
  56. Bullington, J. and S. R. Leigh. 2002. Rock art revisited. Science 296(5567):468.
  57. Bunt, Lucas N.H., Phillip S. Jones, and Jack D. Bedient. 1976. The Historical Roots of Elementary Mathematics. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  58. Byers, Martin. 1994. Symboling and the Middle-Upper Paleolithic Transition - A Theoretical and Methodological Critique. Current Anthropology 35(4): 369-400.
  59. Byers, Martin. 2001. A pragmatic view of the emergence of Paleolithic symbol using. In In the mind's eye: multidisciplinary approaches to the evolution of human cognition, ed. April Nowell, 50-62. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  60. Cacho, Carmen, Sergio Ripoll López and Luciano J. Municio González. 2001. L'art mobilier d'Estebanvela. In Les premiers hommes modernes de la Péninsule Ibérique: actes du Colloque de la Commission VIII de l'UISPP, ed. João Zilhão, Thierry Aubry, and António Faustino Carvalho, Trabalhos d'Arqueologia 17: 175-182.
  61. Cain, Chester R. 2004. Notched, flaked and ground bone artefacts from middle stone age and iron age layers of Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Journal Of Science 100 (3-4): 195-197.
  62. Cain, Chester R. 2006. Implications of the marked artifacts of the Middle Stone Age of Africa. Current Anthropology 47 (4): 675-681.
  63. Campbell, John. 1977. The Upper Palaeolithic of Britain: a study of man and nature in the late Ice Age. Oxford: Clarendon.
  64. Caralp, E., L-R. Nougier and R. Robert. 1973. Le theme du 'mammifère aux poissons' dans l'art Magdalénien. Préhistoire Ariègoise 28: 11-23.
  65. Cardini, Luigi. 1942. Nuovi Documenti sull'Antichita dell Uomo Italia. Reperto Umano del Paleolitico Superior nella i Grotta delle Arene Candide, Razza e Civilita a anno III 23(1-4)
  66. Cerdeño, Luisa, Gracia Rodríguez-Caderot, Pedro R. Moya, Ana Ibarra, Silvia Herrero. 2006. Los estudios de arqueoastronomía en España: estado de la cuestión. Trabajos de Prehistoria. 63(2): 13-34.
  67. Charles, R. 1991. Note sur la découverte de nouvelles incisions rythmiques du Paléolithique supérieur provénant de Gough's Cave, Somerset, Angleterre. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Francaise 88: 45-48.
  68. Chase, Philip G. 1991. Symbols and Paleolithic Artifacts - Style, Standardization and the Imposition of Arbitrary Form. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 10(3): 193-214.
  69. Chase, Philip G., and Harold L. Dibble. 1987. Middle Paleolithic symbolism: A review of current evidence and interpretations. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 6:263-96.
  70. Chauvet, 1910. Os, ivoires et bois de renne ouvrés de la Charente. Bulletin de la Société Archéologique et Historique de la Charente.
  71. Chollot, M. 1964. Collection Piette, Musée des Antiquités Nationales. Paris.
  72. Chollot-Varagnac, M. 1980. Les origines du graphisme symbolique: Essai d'analyse des écritures primitives en préhistoire. Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac.
  73. Clottes, Jean, and Henri Delporte. 2003. La Grotte de la Vache (Arie`ge) fouilles Romain Robert. Paris.
  74. Combier, J. 1976. Solutré. In Livret-guide de l'excursion A8, Bassin du Rhône. Nice: IX Congrès UISPP, 11-117.
  75. Congregado, L. A. 1991. Arte y Astronomica: evolucion de los dibujos de las constelaciones. Tesis Doctoral presentada en la Facultad de Bellas Artes de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
  76. Conkey, Margaret W. 1987. New Approaches in the Search for Meaning? A Review of Research in "Paleolithic Art". Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 14, No. 4. (Winter, 1987), pp. 413-430.
  77. Conkey, Margaret W. 1996. A history of the interpretation of European 'palaeolithic art': magic, mythogram, and metaphors for modernity. In Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution, ed. Andrew Lock and Charles R. Peters, 288-349. Oxford: Blackwell.
  78. Coolidge, Frederick L. and Thomas Wynn. 2005. Working memory, its executive functions, and the emergence of modern thinking. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15 (1): 5-26.
  79. Corchon Rodriguez, S. 1986. El arte mueble paleolitico cantabrico: contexto y analisis interno. Santander: Ministerio de Cultura, Centro de investigacion y Museo de Altamira.
  80. Couch, Carl J. 1989. Oral Technologies: a cornerstone of ancient civilizations? The Sociological Quarterly 30(4): 587-602.
  81. Couraud, C. 1980. Numérotations et rythmes préhistoriques. La Recherche 109: 356-358.
  82. Couraud, C. 1985. L'art azilien: origine-survivance. Paris: CNRS.
  83. Couraud, C. and M. Lorblanchet. 1986. Les galets aziliens de l'abri Pagès et l'art azilien en Quercy. Préhistoire Quercy-noise 2: 5-37.
  84. Courty, Georges. 1928. L'écriture paléolithique. L'Homme Préhistorique 15: 236-240.
  85. Cowan, H.J.K. and Alexander Marshack. 1975. More on upper paleolithic engraving. Current Anthropology 16(2): 297-8.
  86. Crémades, Michéle, H. Leville, N. Sirakov and J. K. Kozlowski. 1995. Une pierre gravée de 50 000 ans B.P. dans les Balkans. Palaeo 7: 201-209.
  87. Crémades, Michéle. 1991. De l'analyse technologique á la signification de l'art mobilier gravé du Paléolithique supérieur. Revue d'Archéométrie 15: 5-16.
  88. Crémades, Michéle. 1992. Analyse et reconstitution technologiques en art mobilier paléolithique. L'exemple du glouton gravé sur báton perforé de La Madeleine (Dordogne). L'Anthropologie 96: 319-336.
  89. Crémades, Michéle. 1994. L'art mobilier paléolithique: analyse des procédés technologiques. Complutum 5: 369-384
  90. Cremades, Michele. 1997. The Representation of Seasonal Variations in Paleolithic Art. Anthropologie 87(1): 83-97.
  91. Crossley, John J. 1987. The Emergence of Number. Singapore: World Scientific.
  92. Currie, G. 2004. The Representational Revolution. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62(2): 119-28.
  93. Dalmeri, G. 1985. L'arte mobiliare dell'abitato tardopaleolitico-mesolitico di Terlago (Trento). Preistoria Alpina 21: 21-31.
  94. Davidson, Iain and William Noble. 1989. The Archaeology Of Perception - Traces Of Depiction And Language. Current Anthropology 30 (2): 125-155.
  95. Davidson, Iain. 1990. Bilzingsleben and early marking. Rock Art Research. 7: 52-56.
  96. Davis, S.J.M. 1974. Incised bones from the Mousterian of Kebara Cave (Mount Carmel) and the Aurignacian of Ha-Yonim Cave (Western Galilee), Israel. Paléorient 2: 181-182.
  97. Davis, Whitney. 1986. The Origins of Image Making. Current Anthropology, 27(3): 193-215.
  98. Davis, Whitney. 1987. Replication and depiction in Paleolithic art. Representations 19: 111-147.
  99. de Heinzelin, Jean. 1957. Les fouilles d'Ishango. Exploration du Parc National Albert (Fasc. 2). Brussels: Institut des Parcs Nationaux du Congo Belge.
  100. de Heinzelin, Jean. 1962. Ishango. Scientific American 206(6): 105-116.
  101. de Laguna, Frederika. 1933. A Comparison of Eskimo and Palaeolithic Art. Part II. Non-Representative Art. American Journal of Archaeology 37(1): 77-107.
  102. Dehaene, Stanislas. 1997. The number sense: How the mind creates mathematics. New York: Oxford University Press.
  103. Delluc, B. and G. Delluc. 1993. Images de la main dans notre préhistoire. Les Dossiers d'Archéologie 178: 32-45.
  104. d'Errico, Francesco and A. Thévenin. 1989. La notion de temps au Paléolithique et le problème des calendriers lunaires. In Les Temps de la Préhistoire, ed. J-P. Mohen, vol. I, 46-47.
  105. d'Errico, Francesco and Carmen Cacho. 1994. Notation Versus Decoration In The Upper Paleolithic - A Case-Study From Tossal-De-La-Roca, Alicante, Spain. Journal Of Archaeological Science 21 (2): 185-200.
  106. d'Errico, Francesco and Christopher Henshilwood. 2007. Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age. Journal of Human Evolution 52(2): 142-163.
  107. d'Errico, Francesco and G. Giacobini. 1988. L'apport des études des surfaces pour l'interprétation des modifications sur l'os au Paléolithique moyen. In L'Homme de Néandertal, Vol. 4: La technique, ed. M. Otte, 39-47. Études et Recherches Archéologiques de l'Université de Liège 31, Liège.
  108. d'Errico, Francesco and G. Giacobini. 1989. Modificazioni naturali e artificiali delle superfici ossee: problematiche, metodologie e risultati archeologici. Atti della XXVII Riunione dell'Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria. Ferrara: 165-169.
  109. d'Errico, Francesco and Gnesutta, P.U. 1999. L'art mobilier épigravettien de la grotte de Settecannelle (Viterbo, Italie). Contexte archéologique, analyse technique et stylistique. Anthropologie 103(1): 121-160.
  110. d'Errico, Francesco and P. Villa. 1998. Nouvelle analyse des os gravés et perforés du paléolithique inférieur et moyen. Implications pour l'origine de la pensée symbolique. Paléo 10: 265-285.
  111. d'Errico, Francesco and Paola Villa. 1997. Holes and grooves: The contribution of microscopy and taphonomy to the problem of art origins. Journal Of Human Evolution 33 (1): 1-31.
  112. d'Errico, Francesco and Vanhaeren, Marian. 1999. Les methodes d'analyse de l'art mobilier paleolithique. Quelques exemples issus de la region cantabrique. Anthropologie et Prehistoire 110: 31-45.
  113. d'Errico, Francesco, Christopher Henshilwood; Lawson, G; Vanhaeren, M; Tillier, AM; Soressi, M; Bresson, F; Maureille, B; Nowell, A; Lakarra, J; Backwell, L; Julien, M. 2003. Archaeological evidence for the emergence of language, symbolism, and music - An alternative multidisciplinary perspective. Journal Of World Prehistory 17 (1): 1-70.
  114. d'Errico, Francesco. 1987. Nouveaux indices et nouvelles techniques microscopiques pour la lecture de l'art gravé mobilier. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie Scientifique de Paris ser. 11, 304: 761-764.
  115. d'Errico, Francesco. 1988. Lecture technologique de l'art mobilier gravé. Nouvelles méthodes et premiers résultats sur les galets gravés de Rochedane. L'Anthropologie 92 (1), 101-121.
  116. d'Errico, Francesco. 1988. New observations on two flint pieces and a bone object in Vallonnet cave (Maritime Alps). L'Anthropologie 92:615-627.
  117. d'Errico, Francesco. 1988. Study of Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic engraved pebbles. In Scanning Electron Microscopy in Archaeology, ed. S.L.Olsen, 169-184. BAR International Series 452. Oxford: BAR.
  118. d'Errico, Francesco. 1989. Memoire et rythmes au Paléolithique: le mythe des calendriers lunaires. In Hominidae: Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Human Paleontology, ed. Giacomo Giacobini, 507-510. Milan: Jaca.
  119. d'Errico, Francesco. 1989. Palaeolithic lunar calendars: a case of wishful thinking? Current Anthropology 30(1): 117-118.
  120. d'Errico, Francesco. 1991. Dal tratto inciso al gesto, dal gesto al significato. L'analisi tecnologica dell'arte mobiliare preistorica. Principi, metodi, prospettive di ricerca. Atti XXVIII Riunione Scientifica dell'Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria.
  121. d'Errico, Francesco. 1991. Étude technologique à base expérimentale des entailles sur matière dure animale. Implications pour l'identification des systèmes de notation. In 25 ans d'Études technologiques en préhistoire, Actes de XIe Rencontres Internationales d'Archéologie et d'Histoire d'Antibes/Juan-les-Pins 1990, 83-97. Paris.
  122. d'Errico, Francesco. 1991. La signification des galets gravés aziliens et le mythe des calendriers lunaires préhistoriques. Annales de la Fondation Fyssen 5/6: 63-73.
  123. d'Errico, Francesco. 1991. Microscopic and statistical criteria for the identification of prehistoric systems of notation. Rock Art Research 8(2): 83-93.
  124. d'Errico, Francesco. 1992. A reply to Alexander Marshack. Rock Art Research 9(1): 59-64.
  125. d'Errico, Francesco. 1992. Technology, motion, and the meaning of Epipaleolithic art. Current Anthropology 33(1): 94-109.
  126. d'Errico, Francesco. 1992. The study of engraved notches and their statistical analysis. Rock Art Research 9(2): 131-132.
  127. d'Errico, Francesco. 1993. Analyse technologique de l'art mobilier: le cas de l'abri des Cabônes à Ranchot (Jura). Galla Préhistoire 35: 139-176.
  128. d'Errico, Francesco. 1994. L'art gravé azilien. De la technique à la signification. XXXIème Supplément à Gallia-Préhistoire. Paris: CNRS Editions.
  129. d'Errico, Francesco. 1995. A new model and its implications for the origin of writing:the La Marche antler revisited. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 5(2):163-206.
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  137. d'Errico, Francesco. 2001. An engraved bone fragment from c. 70,000 Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa: implications for the origins of symbolism and language. Antiquity 75(288): 309-318.
  138. d'Errico, Francesco. 2001. Memories out of mind: The archaeology of the oldest artificial memory systems. In In the Mind's Eye: Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Evolution of Human Cognition, ed. April Nowell, 33-49. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.
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  145. Dibble, Harold L., R.L. Holloway, Alexander Marshack, A. Rosenfeld, G.W. Trompf, W. Noble, and I. Davidson. 1989. On depiction and language. Current Anthropology 30 (3): 330-342.
  146. Dickson, D. Bruce. 1990. The Dawn of Belief. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  147. Didon, L. 1911. L'abri Blanchard des Roches. Bulletin de la Société Historique et Archéologique du Périgord 38: 321-345.
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  149. Donald, Merlin. 1991. Origins of the modern mind. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  150. Duff, Andrew I., Geoffrey A. Clark, and Thomas J. Chadderdon. 1992. Symbolism in the Early Paleolithic: A Conceptual Odyssey. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2: 211-229.
  151. Duhard, J-P. 1988. Le calendrier obstétrical de la femme à la corne en bas-relief de Laussel. Bull. Soc. Hist. Archéol. Périgord 66: 257-275.
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  154. Edwards, Stephen W. 1978. Nonutilitarian Activities in the Lower Paleolithic: A Look at the Two Kinds of Evidence. Current Anthropology 19(1): 135-137.
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